The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is a standardized test that is an admission requirement for many
graduate schools in the United States, in other English-speaking countries and for English-taught
graduate and business programs world-wide. Created and administered by Educational Testing Service
(or ETS) in 1949, the exam aims to measure verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, analytical
writing and critical thinking skills that have been acquired over a long period of time and that are
not related to any specific field of study.
The GRE General Test is offered as a computer-based,
computer adaptive exam administered by selected qualified testing centers; however, paper-based exams
are offered in areas of the world where computer-based testing is not available.In the graduate
school admissions process, the level of emphasis that is placed upon GRE scores varies widely between
schools and between departments within schools. The importance of a GRE score can range from being a
mere admission formality to an important selection factor. The cost of the general test varies
between US$160 and $210, depending on the country of taking the test, although ETS will reduce the
fee under certain circumstances. They are promoting financial aid to those GRE applicants who prove
economic hardship. ETS erases all test records that are older than 5 years, although graduate program
policies on the admittance of scores older than 5 years will vary.
The exam consists of four sections. The first section is a
writing section, while the other three are multiple-choice style. One of the multiple choice style
exams will test verbal skills, another will test quantitative skills and a third exam will be an
experimental section that is not included in the reported score. The entire test procedure takes
about 4 hours.
The verbal section consists of analogies, completions, and
reading comprehension passages. Multiple-choice response sections are graded on a scale of 200-800,
in 10-point increments. This section primarily tests vocabulary, and average scores in this section
are substantially lower than those in the quantitative section. In a typical examination, this
section may consist of 30 questions, and 30 minutes may be allotted for it.
The quantitative section, the other multiple-choice section,
consists of problem solving and quantitative comparison questions that test high-school level
mathematics. Multiple-choice response sections are graded on a scale of 200-800, in 10-point
increments. In a typical examination, this section may consist of 28 questions, and test takers may
be given 45 minutes to complete the section. This section typically includes 14 quantitative
comparison questions, 10 discrete quantitative questions (multiple-choice) and 4 data interpretation
Analytical writing section
The analytical writing section consists of two different
essays, an "issue task" and an "argument task". The writing section is graded on a scale of 0-6, in
half-point increments. The essays are written on a computer using a word processing program
specifically designed by ETS. The program allows only basic computer functions and does not contain a
spell-checker or other advanced features. Each essay is scored by at least two readers on a six-point
holistic scale. If the two scores are within one point, the average of the scores is taken. If the
two scores differ by more than a point, a third reader examines the response.
The test taker will be able to choose between two topics
upon which to write an essay. The time allowed for this essay is 45 minutes. Issue topics are
selected from a pool of questions.
The test taker will be given an "argument" and will be asked
to write an essay that critiques the argument. Test takers are asked to consider the argument's logic
and to make suggestions about how to improve the logic of the argument. The time allotted for this
essay is 30 minutes. Arguments are selected from a pool of topics.
The experimental section, which can be either a verbal,
quantitative, or analytical writing task, contains new questions that ETS is considering for future
use. Although the experimental section does not count toward the test-taker’s score, it is
unidentified and appears identical to the real (scored) part of the test. As test takers have no
clear way of knowing which section is experimental, they are forced to complete this section. This
section does not appear on all GRE examinations. Furthermore, an identified and un-scored section of
such experimental questions, asked for research purposes, can appear at the end of the test.